Create a Basic PHP Class

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    Create a Basic PHP Class
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    with Leanna Pelham
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    Let's create a fresh file that we can play around with.
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    Call it play.php.
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    Now we can warn the rebels that it's a trap.
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    Put play.php in the URL.
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    And there it is.
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    We've conquered the echo statement.
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    Now to the cool stuff.
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    The first super important, big awesome, crazy thing in object
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    oriented programming is a class.
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    To create one, write the keyword class, then the name of it.
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    This name can be almost anything alphanumeric.
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    Finish things off with an open curly brace and a close curly brace.
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    Nice work.
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    Don't worry about what this class thing is yet.
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    But if you refresh, you can see that creating a class
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    doesn't actually do anything.
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    Creating a class, check.
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    And with that, we can see the second super
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    important, big awesome, crazy thing in object
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    oriented programming, an object.
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    Once you have a class, you can instantiate
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    a new object from that class.
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    And it looks like this.
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    Create a variable called myShip.
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    And then use the new keyword followed by the name of the class,
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    then open parentheses, close parentheses.
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    It kind of looks like we're calling a function called Ship,
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    except for the new keyword in front of that
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    tells PHP that Ship is a class and we're
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    instantiating a new object from it.
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    Before we explain any of this, refresh again.
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    Still no changes.
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    We have this new thing called an object that's set to myShip.
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    But it doesn't cause anything to happen.
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    OK, let me explain this class and object stuff.
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    When this stuff finally clicks, you'll know that you really
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    get object-oriented programming.
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    So listen carefully.
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    And I'll come back to this later as we add more stuff.
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    Pretend with me.
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    You're the manager of a shipping dock on the Death Star.
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    To avoid any force choking, when each ship lands,
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    you need to take an inventory of it.
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    What's its name, size?
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    Does it have a warp drive?
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    What's the fuel level, weapon power, defence strength, and other stuff?
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    And also imagine that even though you're in a flying space death
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    machine, you don't have computers.
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    You track everything by making copies of a template worksheet
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    you designed in Excel.
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    Yeah, they use Windows on the Death Star.
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    A class is like that empty template, with blank lines for the ship's
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    name and size, a yes/no option for warp drive,
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    and blanks for fuel level, weapon power, and defense strength.
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    It's not actually a ship, of course.
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    But it defines all the properties that a ship might have.
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    OK, I think you've got the gist on classes.
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    Now let's go over objects.
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    This is where I'm supposed to tell you
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    to think of an object like a real ship that's landed in our dock.
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    That's correct, but I think it's closer
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    to think of an object like a completed worksheet
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    that we've filled out for a ship, complete with its name, weapon
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    details, strength, and fuel levels.
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    If 10 ships land, then we'll print out 10 blank worksheets
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    and fill each in with different details.
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    If we refuel one of those ships, we'll update
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    the fuel level on its worksheet.
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    But each ship is using the same template or a class.
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    If we wanted to also track a ship's weight,
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    we'd need to go back to the template and add a field for it there.
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    Right now, our class is empty.
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    That's like a template with no blank fields to fill in, not helpful.
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    Time to fix that.
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    OK, clear your mind quickly and think about arrays.
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    An array holds data on keys.
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    We choose a key like has warp drive, then put something there.
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    Simple.
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    An object works exactly like an array,
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    except instead of calling these storage spaces keys,
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    we call them properties.
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    But basically, they work the same way.
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    There is one big difference between an array and an object.
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    With an array, you can just invent a new key and set data on it.
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    But with an object, you need to pre-register
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    the possible properties it might have in its class.
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    Back at our loading dock, this means an array is like a template where
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    each line has two blanks, one for the value
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    and one for what the value is.
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    We might fill in a line with the ship's name but not the fuel level.
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    And maybe we'll write down the color of the ship on another line.
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    And because I don't really like my job,
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    I'll put my current favorite song on the last line.
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    If I give 10 sheets to my manager, she'll
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    have no guarantee of what data I may or may not have recorded.
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    Simple, but unstructured.
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    But an object is like the sheets we were talking about earlier.
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    It has a list of exactly what we want to track with a blank next
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    to each for that value.
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    So if we want to be able to store the name of each ship,
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    we'll need to add a spot for it on the template.
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    In object-oriented land, we need to add
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    a name property to our ship class.
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    Let's do it.
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    Say public, then $, then the name of your property.
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    In this case, our name is actually name.
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    This doesn't do anything.
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    But now ship objects are allowed to hold data on a name property.
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    And how do we set that?
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    We do it with this syntax here.
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    Now they can read the data from that property using the same syntax.
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    Try it out.
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    It's working great.
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    Does this feel familiar?
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    It works exactly like an array, except instead
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    of the square bracket syntax, we use this -> syntax.
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    Let's call that an arrow.
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    The real difference between an object and an array
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    is that an object has a class that defines all possible properties
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    that it can hold, instead of being able to store any random keys you
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    dream up, like an array.
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    And with this simple difference, you get a huge benefit.
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    A class is like programmer documentation.
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    If I give you an array, you have no idea what data is on it.
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    You can var_dump it to see, then just hope that it will always
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    have the same keys in the future.
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    But if I hand you a ship object, you know something about it.
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    You know that it will always have a name property.
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    And it'll never have email or phone properties,
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    because they're not in the class.
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    The class gives us a skeleton and some rules we know it'll follow.
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    Now let's talk about something even better than this, methods.

Create a Basic PHP Class

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This lesson covers the basics of classes and objects. You'll learn how to set up a class and then what a class is and what objects are like. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to create a class, an object, create a property, and set the value of a property inside a class.

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